MESA - Middle East Studies Association

Letters on Saudi Arabia

March 17, 2014

(click here for Arabic version)

HRH Prince Mohammad bin Nayef bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
Minister of Interior
Ministry of Interior
PO Box 2933
Riyadh 11134
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

via fax: 966-1-403-1185

Your Royal Highness,

I write to you on behalf of the Committee on Academic Freedom of the Middle East Studies Association (MESA) to express our concern regarding economics professor Mohammad Fahad al-Qahtani.  In March 2013, Dr. Al-Qahtani was sentenced to 10-years in prison and to a travel ban of equal length following the end of his prison sentence for a series of security-related charges.  He is currently being held at the Ha’ir prison near Riyadh.  We believe that the charges against Prof. al-Qahtani are politically motivated and that he has been imprisoned solely for exercising his right to freedom of expression and association.
   
MESA was founded in 1966 to promote scholarship and teaching on the Middle East and North Africa. The preeminent organization in the field, the Association publishes the International Journal of Middle East Studies and has nearly 3,000 members worldwide. MESA is committed to ensuring academic freedom and freedom of expression, both within the region and in connection with the study of the region in North America and elsewhere.

Dr. al-Qahtani received his PhD from Indiana University in 2002, and taught economics at the Institute of Diplomatic Affairs under the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 2009, along with other Saudi academics and scholars, including human rights activist Abdullah al-Hamid who was also his co-defendant at his 2013 trial, he co-founded the Saudi Civil and Political Rights Association (ACPRA), an organization that calls for greater civil rights in the kingdom and which helps many families of detainees held without charge or trial.  His only “crime” would appear to be peaceful advocacy for civil rights and civil liberties in Saudi Arabia.  He is therefore a prisoner of conscience who should be released immediately and unconditionally.

As a member of the UN, Saudi Arabia has committed to upholding international human rights standards that are recognized as norms of customary international law, such as those set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.  Article 20 of the Universal Declaration states that “everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.”  We therefore urge you to take the necessary steps to ensure that the relevant authorities in the kingdom comply with their obligations under international human rights law and release Dr. al-Qahtani immediately.

We look forward to your response.

Sincerely,

Nathan Brown
President

cc:        HE Adel A. Al-Jubeir, Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the US

April 24, 2013

HRH Prince Mohammad bin Nayef bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
Minister of Interior
Ministry of Interior
PO Box 2933
Riyadh 11134
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
via fax: 966-1-403-1185

Your Royal Highness,

On behalf of the Committee on Academic Freedom of the Middle East Studies Association (MESA) of North America, I write to protest the ongoing arbitrary imprisonment of two scholars, Dr. Abdul Rahman Al Shamiri and Dr. Musa Al Qarni, by the authorities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We believe that Drs. Al Shamiri and Al Qarni are political prisoners, and we call upon you to arrange for their immediate and unconditional release.

MESA was founded in 1966 to promote scholarship and teaching on the Middle East and North Africa. The preeminent organization in the field, the Association publishes the International Journal of Middle East Studies and has nearly 3,000 members worldwide. MESA is committed to ensuring academic freedom and freedom of expression, both within the region and in connection with the study of the region in North America and elsewhere.

Dr. Al Shamiri is a professor of Islamic education. Dr. Al Qarni is a retired lawyer and professor of Islamic jurisprudence. They are both signatories to an open letter published in February 2007 encouraging various political and economic reforms within the framework of constitutional monarchy in Saudi Arabia. The letter stresses the importance of fostering the growth of civil society associations, ensuring a more equitable distribution of wealth and property, and improving the educational system in the Kingdom. It grounds these calls in numerous public statements by HRH King Abdullah in support of the concept of popular participation in governance.

State security agents arrested Drs. Al Shamiri and Al Qarni, along with several others, shortly after the letter’s publication. They were subsequently held, frequently in solitary confinement, and sometimes incommunicado, for more than three years before the state filed formal charges against them. On November 28, 2007, the UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention issued an opinion stating that these men were being “detained without any legal basis in violation of article 9 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.” According to Amnesty International, Drs. Al Shamiri and Al Qarni and their colleagues were interrogated many times with no recourse to legal representation.

Most alarming is Amnesty International’s report that at least two members of the group were tortured while in detention. One man, whose name was withheld for his protection, says that on at least seven occasions he was badly beaten with an electro-shock baton, metal rods and other weapons.

In August 2010, the men in the Shamiri-Qarni group were finally arraigned on charges including conspiracy against the state, incitement against the king, money laundering, and financing of terrorism. On November 22, 2011, 16 of these civil society activists were sentenced to lengthy jail terms. Dr. Al Shamiri received a sentence of ten years’ incarceration, to be followed by a ten-year travel ban. Dr. Al Qarni got a 20-year prison sentence, to be followed by a 20-year travel ban. All sentences began at the time of arrest to account for time served.

For several reasons, we are deeply skeptical of the veracity of the charges against these two professors and their colleagues. The allegations of torture cast serious doubt on any and all evidence the state claims to have gathered from interrogations. According to Amnesty International, the state released six men detained as part of the same prosecution before the trial began. These men, Amnesty reports, “were believed to have signed a pledge not to discuss their imprisonment.” Lastly, the original open letter, which we have read closely, says nothing whatsoever about “seizing power” or “breaking allegiance to the ruler,” as the state alleged in court, let alone terrorism. It is a respectful petition for peaceful and gradual political reform.

It appears to us, therefore, that Drs. Al Shamiri and Al Qarni and their colleagues were arrested, detained, maltreated, tried, and convicted on false and politically motivated charges. As flawed and objectionable as the state’s case seems to be, their continued incarceration with only the briefest of furloughs seems to us unconscionable—and compels us to write to you now. We are further concerned for Dr. Al Shamiri’s health, as he is diabetic.

We urge you to secure the immediate and unconditional release of these two professors and the other civil society activists in jail as part of this prosecution. We echo the recommendation of the UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention that you press for the Kingdom’s signature and ratification of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which would prohibit the protracted pre-trial imprisonment without charge to which these men were subjected. We ask that you order a prompt and thorough investigation of the allegations of torture in this and other cases, with an eye toward halting that practice in the Kingdom’s prisons. We appeal, finally, for your assurances that the rights to free expression and peaceable assembly will be respected and upheld by the government in Saudi Arabia.

Sincerely,

Peter Sluglett
MESA President
Visiting Research Professor, Middle East Institute, National University of Singapore

cc:  H.E. Adel A. Al-Jubeir, Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the US

January 27, 2011

HRH Prince Nayef bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud
Minister of the Interior
PO Box 2933
Riyadh 11134
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Your Highness:

I write on behalf of the Middle East Studies Association of North America and its Committee on Academic Freedom. We express our concern over the arrest and detention of Professor Mohammed al Abdulkarim of the Faculty of Islamic Jurisprudence at Imam Mohammed bin Saud University. Professor al Abdulkarim was arrested on December 5, 2010, apparently for an article he published online about differences in the ruling family over succession and the transfer of power in the Kingdom. Professor al Abdulkarim is also a member of the Human Rights Commission, the editor in chief of the National Congress Journal and a member of the Arab Organization for Human Rights.

The Middle East Studies Association of North America (MESA) was founded in 1966 to promote scholarship and teaching of the Middle East and North Africa. The preeminent organization in the field, MESA publishes the International Journal of Middle East Studies and has nearly 3000 members worldwide. MESA is committed to ensuring academic freedom and freedom of expression, both within the region and in connection with the study of the region in North America and elsewhere.

Article 36 of the Saudi Basic Law guarantees that no citizen may be detained without due process of law. As of yet, there is no evidence that due process of law has been followed in this case. No formal charges have been filed, to our knowledge, yet he remains imprisoned in Al-Hayer prison south of Riyadh, a maximum security facility. By Saudi Arabian law, he should have access to his lawyer and should have seen a judge by now. Under Saudi law, he should not have been detained for more than 24 hours without being charged.

We ask that you ensure Professor al Abdulkarim be granted full access to his lawyer and that due process of law be upheld in this case. If he is charged with an offense, we ask that he be tried before a court that meets fair international standards. If he is not to be charged, we urge that he be released promptly, accorded his full right to self-expression, and allowed to resume his professional responsibilities without conditions or limitations on his academic freedom, and without professional sanction or penalty. We look forward to your response.

Yours sincerely,

Suad Joseph
MESA President
Professor of Anthropology & Women’s Studies, University of California, Davis

cc: HRH Prince Mohammed bin Naif bin Abdulaziz, Assistant to Interior Minister

July 22, 2008

HRH Prince Nayef bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud
Minister of Interior
Ministry of Interior
PO Box 2933
Riyadh 11134
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
via fax 011-966-1-403-1185

Your Highness:

On 30 May 2008 the Committee on Academic Freedom of the Middle East Studies Association wrote to you to express our deep concern over the arrest and detention of Professor Matrouk Al-Faleh of the Department of Political Science at King Saud University. Professor Al-Faleh was arrested sometime after leaving his house on May 19, 2008.

Since sending that letter, additional, disturbing information about Prof. Al-Faleh’s situation has come to our attention. Although formal charges have still not been brought against him, we have learned that he has been imprisoned in Al-Hair prison, a maximum security facility. It is also our understanding that he has now been officially dismissed from his position as professor of political science with no possibility of reinstatement. Moreover, to underline his insistence on having a lawyer present during any interrogation, Prof. Faleh has undertaken a hunger strike.

As we noted in our previous letter, MESA's Committee on Academic Freedom takes particular interest in Professor Al-Faleh’s case because he was selected as the recipient of MESA's academic freedom award in November 2004. MESA, which promotes scholarship and teaching on the Middle East and North Africa and has more than 2800 members worldwide, is the preeminent organization in the field. It is committed to ensuring academic freedom and freedom of expression, both within the region and in connection with the study of the region in North America and elsewhere. In bestowing its academic freedom award upon Professor Al-Faleh, MESA cited him for "his courageous and principled stance. He and his colleagues have made a brave stand in favor of freedom of speech and academic freedom, and they deserve our support and our admiration."

We are, therefore, particularly disturbed that Professor Al-Faleh has not been processed by the Saudi judicial system, that, in the absence of such processing, he has apparently been dismissed from his university post, and that he is currently on a hunger strike. 
Thus, once again we urge you to accord Professor Al-Faleh his full rights to express himself, both politically and academically--the same rights that he advocates so forcefully for others. We also ask, on behalf of our organization, that you ensure that Professor Al-Faleh be granted access to a lawyer, be released promptly or be charged with a criminal offense, and if he is charged, that he be tried before a court that meets international fair trial standards.

We look forward to receiving your response.

Respectfully,
Mervat F. Hatem
MESA President 
Professor of Political Science, Howard University

cc:
His Excellency Adel A. Al-Jubeir, Saudi Ambassador to the United States
King Saud University, Department of Political Science


May 30, 2008

HRH Prince Nayef bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud
Minister of Interior
Ministry of Interior
PO Box 2933
Riyadh 11134
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

via fax 011-966-1-403-1185

Your Highness:

I write to you on behalf of the Middle East Studies Association of North America, and its Committee on Academic Freedom to express our deep concern over the arrest and detention of Professor Matrook Al-Faleh of the Department of Political Science at King Saud University.  Professor Al-Faleh was taken some time after leaving his house on May 19, 2008.  His family and associates report that his arrest has not been explained, nor have they been informed of any charges against him.  Professor Al-Faleh has been arrested and tried in the past for expressing his political opinions and advocating reforms in Saudi Arabia, though he was finally pardoned. 

The Middle East Studies Association of North America (MESA) was founded in1966 to promote scholarship and teaching on the Middle East and North Africa. The preeminent organization in the field, the Association publishes the International Journal of Middle East Studiesand has more than 2800 members worldwide. MESA is committed to ensuring academic freedom and freedom of expression, both within the region and in connection with the study of the region in North America and elsewhere.

MESA's Committee on Academic Freedom takes particular interest in Professor Al-Faleh's case because he was awarded MESA's academic freedom award in November 2004.  At that time, MESA cited him for “his courageous and principled stance” and further proclaimed that “he and his colleagues have made a brave stand in favor of freedom of speech and academic freedom, and they deserve our support and our admiration.”

We urge you to accord Professor Al-Faleh his full rights to express himself both politically and academically-the same rights that he advocates so forcefully for others.  We also ask, on behalf of our organization, that you ensure that Professor Al-Faleh be granted access to a lawyer, be released promptly or be charged with a criminal offense, and if he is charged, that he be tried before a court that meets international fair trial standards.  
 
We look forward to your response.

Respectfully,

Mervat Hatem
MESA President 
Professor of Political Science, Howard University

cc: His Excellency Adel A. Al-Jubeir, Saudi Ambassador to the United States
King Saud University, Department of Political Science


April 17, 2007

His Majesty Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud
Royal Court
Riyadh 11111
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
c/o Ambassador Prince Adel A. Al-Jubeir, Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the US
601 New Hampshire Ave., NW
Washington, DC 20037
Fax: 202-944-5983

Your Majesty:

We are writing on behalf of the Middle East Studies Association of North America (MESA) and its Committee on Academic Freedom. We are deeply concerned about arbitrary restrictions that the government, including the Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Higher Education, has placed on a number of Saudi academics. These restrictions include preventing professors from teaching and meeting with students, banning publication and distribution of their work, denying them access to Saudi and regional media, and prohibiting them from traveling abroad for professional purposes.

It appears that these restrictions have been imposed because these academics have, in their writing and public comments, criticized government policies. The government’s response appears intended to punish these individuals for expressing their views, and to intimidate others who may be inclined to do the same. These restrictions clearly violate the internationally guaranteed right to freedom of expression and the right to impart and exchange information and ideas--the core elements of academic freedom. We therefore urge you to review these cases, take steps to remove these restrictions, and instruct the Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Higher Education to cease policies that punish scholars solely for the peaceful expression of views critical of official policies and practices.

The Middle East Studies Association of North America (MESA) was founded in 1966 to promote scholarship and teaching on the Middle East and North Africa. The preeminent organization in the field, the Association publishes the International Journal of Middle East Studiesand has more than 2700 members worldwide. MESA is committed to ensuring academic freedom and freedom of expression, both within the region and in connection with the study of the region in North America and elsewhere.

The serious violations of academic freedom in Saudi Arabia that have come to our attention include the following:

• Dr. Matrouk al-Faleh, a professor of political science at King Saud University, is presently on sabbatical leave from his university post. His leave was approved by the university’s Academic Council, and he hoped to spend the academic year at the University of Washington, but Ministry of Interior orders have prevented him from traveling for that purpose.

• Dr. al-Faleh has continued to speak out publicly on the need for comprehensive political and constitutional reform in Saudi Arabia as well as reforms in the governance of Saudi universities. You met with Dr. al-Faleh in August 2005 after pardoning him following his conviction on trumped-up charges for calling publicly for a constitutional monarchy.

In 2004, while he was in detention, MESA chose Dr. al-Faleh for its annual Academic Freedom Defender Award and we continue to monitor his situation. The Ministry of Interior should immediately revoke the restrictions it has placed on Dr. al-Faleh’s travel and his ability to speak out publicly in the media.

• Dr. Abdullah al-Hamid, formerly on the teaching staff of Imam Muhammad bin Saud Islamic University until his dismissal in the mid-1990s, is today a prominent public intellectual. He was among those convicted and subsequently pardoned along with Dr. al-Faleh for advocating peaceful political change. The Ministry of Interior has also prohibited his travel and his ability to express his views critically in Saudi media. We call on you to instruct the interior ministry officials to revoke the punitive restrictions they have placed on Dr. al- Hamid’s right to travel and to express his views publicly.

• Hassan al-Malki had been an instructor at the Imam Muhammad bin Saud Islamic University and a consultant with the Ministry of Education until he was dismissed from both positions in 2002 as a result of his public advocacy of reforms in Saudi educational curricula. The government has also banned the sale and distribution of his books in Saudi Arabia. According to Dr. al-Malki, Ministry of Interior orders prohibit him from lecturing or writing in Saudi Arabia or traveling abroad as a result of his criticism of the policies and practices of the country’s religious establishment in particular. We urge you to ensure that the Ministry of Interior revokes its orders preventing Dr. al-Malki from teaching, writing, and traveling.

• Abd al-Rahman al-Hakimi was preparing his thesis for a Master of Arts degree and teaching at the Imam Muhammad bin Saud Islamic University when he was dismissed from the university several years ago after he called publicly for greater tolerance of unorthodox views in Islam. According to Mr. al-Hakimi, no Saudi university has accepted his request to finish his degree. His dismissal and subsequent exclusion from any degree program appears to be in reprisal for his public advocacy of views critical of the Saudi religious establishment in particular. We urge you to take steps to ensure that no government ministries or public officials prevent Mr. al-Hakimi from resuming his higher studies and his ability to lecture.

• Dr. Tawfiq al-Qusayyir taught physics at King Saud University until he was forcibly retired in 1994. He was among those detained in early 2004 for calling publicly for a constitutional monarchy. He was released from detention on March 30, 2004 after signing a statement that he would refrain from further advocacy of political reform. However, he remains banned from traveling abroad solely as a result of his advocacy of peaceful political change.

Your Highness, we are familiar with additional cases of individual academics and public intellectuals who do not wish to be named publicly but who have suffered similar punitive restrictions for exercising their right to freedom of expression, the right to impart, receive, and exchange information, and the right to participate in public affairs. We strongly urge you to address the grievances of the individuals raised in this letter and to take steps to see that the Ministry of Interior, the Ministry of Higher Education, and other official bodies end policies of punishing those who peacefully advocate political change and end policies aimed at silencing and intimidating a whole group of Saudi citizens.

Sincerely,
Zachary Lockman
MESA President

cc: Prince Naif bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud
Minister of Interior
PO Box 2933
Riyadh 11134
Saudi Arabia 
Fax: +966 1 403-1185

Dr. Khalid bin Muhammad Al-Anqari
Saudi Arabian Minister of Higher Education 
Faisal Hospital Street
Riyadh 11153
Saudi Arabia 
Fax: +966 1 441-9004

His Excellency Adel A. A-Jubeir
Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the United States
601 New Hampshire Ave, NW
Washington, DC 20037
Fax: 202-944-5983

Prince Turki al-Faisal
Head, King Faisal Center for Research and Islamic Studies
PO Box 51049
Riyadh 11543
Saudi Arabia
Fax: +966 1 465-9993, sjameel@kff.com


June 22, 2005

His Royal Highness Crown Prince Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud
Royal Court
Riyadh 11111
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Your Highness:

I write to you on behalf of the Committee on Academic Freedom of the Middle East Studies Association of North America in order to express our grave concern over the six year prison sentence handed down on May 15, 2005 against Professor Matrouk Al-Faleh of King Saud University. I have enclosed a copy of our letter of March 29, 2004 to Interior Minister Prince Nayif, in which we protested the arbitrary arrest of a number of Saudi academics, including Prof. Al-Faleh.

The Middle East Studies Association of North America (MESA) comprises 2600 academics worldwide who teach and conduct research on the Middle East and North Africa, and is the preeminent professional association in the field. The association publishes the International Journal of Middle East Studies, and is committed to ensuring respect for the principles of academic freedom and freedom of expression in the region and in connection with the study of the Middle East and North Africa.

Prof. Al-Faleh was convicted of the most specious of charges, including sowing disorder in society, disobeying the authorities and issuing declarations to public opinion inside and outside the country (as quoted in al-Hayat, May 16, 2005, p. 1). None of these charges involve acts of violence or threats of violence against the government or any persons. In fact, Prof. Al-Faleh has been convicted of exercising his universally-acknowledged right to freedom of speech. His conviction not only contravenes global standards of academic freedom, it also runs counter to international and Arab covenants to which Saudi Arabia is a party.

Ali al-Dumaini, a co-defendant of Prof. Al-Faleh who was himself sentenced to nine years in prison, pointed out in his open letter to the court (www.rezgar.com/debat/show.art.aspaid=37023) that their conviction runs directly counter to obligations which the Saudi government itself took on when it signed the Arab Covenant for Human Rights, an amended version of which was agreed to at the Arab summit of May 23, 2004. Among the provisions of that covenant which were contravened in this case are: the right to political activity, the right to peacefully assemble with others, the right to freedom of expression, and the right to disseminate political writings. The court proceedings also ran counter to a number of the rights included in the Covenant, including the right of the accused to a public trial without undue delay. It is also clear that the trial did not meet international fair trial standards.

We call upon you to take appropriate steps to ensure that this unjust ruling is voided and that Prof. Al-Faleh is able to return to his academic position at King Saud University without delay and without prejudice. 
Yours sincerely,
Ali Banuazizi
President, Middle East Studies Association
Professor, Boston College

cc: Prince Bandar bin Sultan bin Abdulaziz, Ambassador of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to the United States


March 29, 2004

Prince Nayif bin Abd al-Aziz
Ministry of the Interior
PO Box 2933
Airport Road 
Riyadh 
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Your Highness:

I write to you on behalf of the Middle East Studies Association of North America, and its Committee on Academic Freedom, in order to express our grave concern about the recent arrests of a number of Saudi university professors and former professors. These include Dr. Matrouk Al Faleh, Dr. Tawfiq Al Qusair, Dr. Abdullah Al Hamed, Dr. Khalid Al Humaid, and Dr. Adnan Al Shakhs. According to media reports, they were arrested for criticizing what they saw as the lack of independence of the National Committee on Human Rights recently formed by the government and for requesting a license to establish an independent human rights organization.

[MESA is...]

The arrested academics were among a group of thirteen Saudi citizens detained in recent weeks solely for peacefully expressing views critical of government policies. Dr. Matrouk Al Faleh is a professor of international relations at King Saud University who wrote a widely read study of Saudi Arabia after the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States, calling for fundamental political reforms in the kingdom. Dr. Khalid Al Humaid is a political science professor at King Saud University; Dr. Al Humaid was apprehended in front of students, while he was teaching a class. Dr. Adnan Al Shakhs is a professor of mathematics at King Fahd University who has participated in many of the reform activities in recent years. Both Dr. Tawfiq Al Qusair and Dr. Abdallah Al Hamed are former university professors who lost their positions in the early 1990s for peaceful political activity. As of March 24, 2004 Dr. Matrouk Al Faleh, Dr. Abdallah Al Hamed and Dr. Tawfiq Al Qusair were still in custody.

These arrests are an affront to international standards of academic freedom and freedom of expression generally, which guarantee that university faculty have the freedom to discuss issues of public concern without fear of official retribution. No evidence has been presented that those arrested did anything but express their opinions in a peaceful manner. There is no evidence that they took actions that violate laws of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia or that threaten public order. 

We also strongly object to the fact that a number of those arrested were reportedly released only on the condition that they pledge not to sign petitions or comment publicly on political issues. Such obvious infringement on the right to freedom of expression and the right to impart and receive information is unacceptable, and reinforces our impression that these arrests were nothing but a blatant attempt at political intimidation.

We have grave doubts that these arrests are legal within the Saudi judicial system. Article 36 of the Saudi Basic Law guarantees that no citizen may be detained without due process of law. As of yet, there is no evidence that due process of law has been followed in this case. No formal charges have been filed, to our knowledge. Nor, to our knowledge, have those still detained been given the right to consult legal counsel.

These arrests also call into question the sincerity of the Saudi government in pursuing the recently launched reform process. The hopes generated by the National Dialogue process and by the announcement of municipal elections for a new atmosphere of free discussion and debate in the Kingdom cannot be sustained in the face of such repressive measures. 
We urge that the government release immediately and without condition all university faculty members and former faculty members as well as others still in custody solely for making statements critical of government policy. We call upon the government to allow all those faculty members arrested to resume their professional responsibilities without conditions or limitations upon their academic freedom, and without professional sanction or penalty.

We appreciate your attention to this urgent matter and look forward to your response.

Yours sincerely,

Amy W. Newhall
Executive Director 

cc:
His Excellency Ambassador Bandar bin Sultan bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud, Ambassador to the United States
Khalid bin Muhammad Al Anqari, Minister of Higher Education



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