|All Middle East;|
|The state at the current time is the only model of the nations and countries’ management. Mainly the notion of the nation-state is most visible and controversial model of the state in the modern world. Whenever the state is mentioned, the notions of sovereignty, independency and legitimacy are taken into account.|
Theoretically and according to the international agreements, the states borders are protected from interventions and occupations due to the respect to their independency, legitimacy and sovereignty. However, the notions of independency and sovereignty are problematic. Practically, there are several entities and states that are dependent on the other states. Often, the notion of legitimacy is not based on the people and the nations within the borders of the states. Recognition from the powerful states often can give legitimacy of the small states. However, the notion of Sovereignty and Independency will be under the question.
This paper tries to examine the current cases of Syrian conflict and state crises through understanding the notion of these three problematic concepts. It will scrutinise the issue of Syrian government’s legitimacy and the notion of sovereignty and independency on the one hand. On the other hand, the power and effects of non-state actors in attaining legitimacy and support from regional and international states. The paper also investigate the other suggested models of the the governance by both states and non-state actors to the current complicated case of Syria.
The second part of the paper examines the role of non-state actors that are acting as parallel to the state. The Kurdish self-Rule entity that was recently named as Democratic Federalism in the North of Syria would be under the scrutiny with regards to the notion of sovereignty, legitimacy and independency. The last part of this paper will be dedicated to compare and contrast between both cases; particularly with regards to the issue of regional and international support, use and exploit of the governments of both states and non-state actors within the territories of Syria.