SUMMARY:In recent years a new scholarship has begun unpacking Palestinian history in its post 1948 and post 1967 dimensions. This historiographical conversation suggested three important ways to reconsider Palestine socio-cultural history. First, scholars attempted to think anew Palestinian cultural and intellectual production. Be it the radical thinkers who emerge after 1967, or Palestinian writers active in the Arabic press of the 1950s and 1960s in either Israel or the Arab world, Palestinian writers are now recognized as important contributors to a trans-regional and radical conversations about statehood, post-colonaility and third-world struggles. Second, the history of Palestine is written from below; it is not simply the history of the grand leaders and politicians, but also of students, children, teachers, writers, and the urban poor, whose experiences and intersection with the communities in which they lived redefine the meaning of being a Palestinian. Third, scholars have looked at possible at Jewish-Palestinian relations, be it the radicals of Matzpen in both Israel and exile, Arab Jews, the Mizrahim, and other non-hegemonic groups in Israeli society much more than the tradition focus on "peace negotiations." This historiography, then, opens up new ways of reading Israeli/Palestinian history; it offers new periodizations, and redefines the meaning of the Arab-Israeli conflict and its geographies. We therefore ask: What are the methodological tools that enabled these new histories to emerge? How does this history complicate our thinking about radical politics and Arab culture after 1948 and after 1967? What insights might we gain regarding Palestinian political activism during these periods? How do regional and localized histories (of classroom, editorial rooms, neighborhoods, villages, Arab cities, development towns, refugee camps) challenge our perceptions of Middle Eastern States? How do we redefine the "Arab-Israeli conflict" based on these reflections?